I’ve heard over and over again that the the Apocryphal books are non-canonical because they are not recognized by or quoted by the NT authors or by Jesus. The problem with this claim is that it’s based on ignorance. Most people probably won’t recognize quotes from the Apocrypha so it’s an easy claim to make which will not likely be challenged by the average protestant Christian. But the NT and Jesus both quote the Apocryphal books. I will list the quotes below.
The second claim for non-canonicity is that the Apocryphal works contain errors and contradictions. Indeed, this is usually the first complaint made when one actually attempts to read them. Judith clearly has a problem with historicity, although, I contend that it was not actually attempting to be completely historical. Nevertheless, this really isn’t a barrier for educated Christians or for academics since even a light reading of the OT will supply the reader with any number of historical and scientific falsehoods. Moreover, the OT often tells the same story twice (in the historical books) but with contradictory information. More on this can be found in a previous post, Is The Bible Inerrant?. It should also be noted at that the NT often quotes from the OT incorrectly and that the Greek Septuagint that was quoted by Paul and the NT authors, often had drastically different verses than what was in the original Hebrew. Job had nearly a 3rd of the book condensed in the Greek version which was used by the early church.
With that brief introduction out of the way. Read below for an expansion on how the Apocryphal books were used by the NT writers.
Apocryphal Quotes and References in the New Testament
Matthew 6:19-20 – “store up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consumes and where thieves do not break in and steal.”
James 5:3 – Your gold and silver have rusted, and their rust will be evidence against you, and it will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up treasure for the last days.
Sirach 29:10-11 – Lose your silver for the sake of a brother or a friend, and do not let it rust under a stone and be lost. Lay up your treasure according to the commandments of the Most High, and it will profit you more than gold.
Matthew 7:12 – “In everything do to others as you would have them do to you;”
Tobit 4:15 – What you hate, do not do to others.
Matthew 7:16,20 – “you will know them by their fruits”
Sirach 27:6 – Its fruit discloses the cultivation of a tree.
Matthew 16:18 – “And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it.”
Wisdom 16:13 – For you have power over life and death; you lead mortals down to the gates of Hades and back again.
Matthew 27:43 – if He is God’s Son, let God deliver him from His adversaries
Wisdom 2:18 – if the righteous man is God’s child, he will help him, and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries
Mark 9:48 – it is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than to have two eyes and to be thrown into hell where their worm never dies, and the fire is never quenched.
Judith 16:17 – The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; he will send fire and worms into their flesh; they shall weep in pain forever.
Luke 1:52 – He has brought down the powerful from their thrones, and lifted up the lowly;
Sirach 10:14 – The Lord overthrows the thrones of rulers, and enthrones the lowly in their place.
Acts 1:7 – He replied, “It is not for you to know the times or periods that the Father has set by his own authority.
1 Thessalonians 5:1 – Now concerning the times and the seasons, brothers and sisters, you do not need to have anything written to you.
Wisdom 8:8 – she (wisdom) has foreknowledge of signs and wonders and of the outcome of seasons and times.
John 6:35-59 – Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to me will never be hungry, and whoever believes in me will never be thirsty.
Sirach 24:21 – Those who eat of me (wisdom) will hunger for more, and those who drink of me will thirst for more.
John 10:22 – At that time the festival of the Dedication took place in Jerusalem. It was winter …. (festival not in OT)
1 Maccabees 4:59 – Then Judas and his brothers and all the assembly of Israel determined that every year at that season the days of dedication of the altar should be observed with joy and gladness for eight days, beginning with the twenty-fifth day of the month of Chislev.
Acts 17:29 – Since we are God’s offspring, we ought not to think that the deity is like gold, or silver, or stone, an image formed by the art and imagination of mortals. (A couple OT passages touch on this theme but nothing similar to Wisdom 13:10.)
Wisdom 13:10 – But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are those who give the name “gods” to the works of human hands, gold and silver fashioned with skill, and likenesses of animals, or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand.
Stand therefore, and fasten the belt of truth around your waist, and put on the breastplate of righteousness. As shoes for your feet put on whatever will make you ready to proclaim the gospel of peace. With all of these, take the shield of faith, with which you will be able to quench all the flaming arrows of the evil one. Take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.
The Lord will take his zeal as his whole armor,
and will arm all creation to repel his enemies;
he will put on righteousness as a breastplate,
and wear impartial justice as a helmet;
he will take holiness as an invincible shield,
and sharpen stern wrath for a sword,
and creation will join with him to fight against his frenzied foes.
Hebrews 11:5 – For it was attested before he was taken away that “he had pleased God.”
Wisdom 4:10 – There were some who pleased God and were loved by him, and while living among sinners were taken up.
Sirach 44:16 – Enoch pleased the Lord and was taken up, an example of repentance to all generations.
Hebrews 11:35 – Women received their dead by resurrection. Others were tortured, refusing to accept release, in order to obtain a better resurrection. (The “Hall of Faith” discourse in Hebrews clearly references the martyrdom of the 7 brothers in 2 Maccabees. A full reading of chapter 7 in 1 Maccabees is recommended.)
2 Maccabees 7:1-42 – After he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way. 14 When he was near death, he said, “One cannot but choose to die at the hands of mortals and to cherish the hope God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!”
Hebrews 12:12 – Therefore lift your drooping hands and strengthen your weak knees (reference to lack of discipline)
Sirach 25:23 – Dejected mind, gloomy face, and wounded heart come from an evil wife. Drooping hands and weak knees come from the wife who does not make her husband happy.
James 1:19 – You must understand this, my beloved:[a] let everyone be quick to listen, slow to speak, slow to anger.
Sirach 5:11 – Be quick to hear, but deliberate in answering.
James 2:23 – Thus the scripture was fulfilled that says, “Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness,”
1 Maccabees 2:52 – Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness?
1 Peter 1:7 – so that the genuineness of your faith—being more precious than gold that, though perishable, is tested by fire …
Wisdom 3:5-6 – because God tested them and found them worthy of himself; like gold in the furnace he tried them
Sirach 2:5 – For gold is tested in the fire, and those found acceptable, in the furnace of humiliation
1 Peter 1:17 – If you invoke as Father the one who judges all people impartially according to their deeds, live in reverent fear during the time of your exile.
Sirach 16:12 – Great as is his mercy, so also is his chastisement; he judges a person according to his or her deeds.
Revelation 1:4 – Grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne.
Tobit 12:15 – “I am Raphael, one of the seven angels who stand ready and enter before the glory of the Lord.”
Revelation 8:3-4 – And the smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, rose before God from the hand of the angel.
Tobit 12:12,15 – So now when you and Sarah prayed, it was I (the angel Raphael) who brought and read the record of your prayer before the glory of the Lord, and likewise whenever you would bury the dead.
Themes, Allusions, and Theology Found in the Apocrypha and the NT but Not the OT
Matthew 23:37 – Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to it! How often have I desired to gather your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you were not willing!
2 Esdras 1:30 – I gathered you as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings. But now, what shall I do to you? I will cast you out from my presence.
Matthew 22:25; Mark 12:20; Luke 20:29 – Now there were seven brothers; the first married, and died childless; ……..
Tobit 3:8 – For she had been married to seven husbands, and the wicked demon Asmodeus had killed each of them …
Tobit 7:11 – I have given her to seven men of our kinsmen, and all died on the night when they went in to her ….
Mark 4:5,16-17 – Jesus’ description of seeds falling on rocky ground and having no root follows
Sirach 40:15 – The children of the ungodly put out few branches; they are unhealthy roots on sheer rock.
Revelation 8:7 – The first angel blew his trumpet, and there came hail and fire
Wisdom 16:22 – Snow and ice withstood fire without melting, so that they might know that the crops of their enemies were being destroyed…
Sirach 39:29 – Fire and hail and famine and pestilence, all these have been created for vengeance;
Revelation 21:19 – The wall is built of jasper, while the city is pure gold, clear as glass. 19 The foundations of the wall of the city are adorned with every jewel; the first was jasper, the second sapphire, the third agate, the fourth emerald, 20 the fifth onyx, the sixth carnelian, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh jacinth, the twelfth amethyst. 21 And the twelve gates are twelve pearls, each of the gates is a single pearl, and the street of the city is pure gold, transparent as glass.
Tobit 13:18 – The gates of Jerusalem will be built with sapphire and emerald, and all your walls with precious stones. The towers of Jerusalem will be built with gold, and their battlements with pure gold. The streets of Jerusalem will be paved with ruby and with stones of Ophir.
Revelation 19:11 – Then I saw heaven opened, and there was a white horse! Its rider is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war.
2 Maccabees 11:8 – while they were still near Jerusalem, a horseman appeared at their head, clothed in white and brandishing weapons of gold.
Hebrews 1:3 – He (Jesus/Logos) is the reflection of God’s glory and the exact imprint of God’s very being
Wisdom 7:26 – For she (Wisdom/Logos) is a reflection of eternal light, a spotless mirror of the working of God, and an image of his goodness.
Parallel to Isaiah 53
12 “Let us lie in wait for the righteous man,
because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions;
he reproaches us for sins against the law,
and accuses us of sins against our training.
13 He professes to have knowledge of God,
and calls himself a child of the Lord.
14 He became to us a reproof of our thoughts;
15 the very sight of him is a burden to us,
because his manner of life is unlike that of others,
and his ways are strange.
16 We are considered by him as something base,
and he avoids our ways as unclean;
he calls the last end of the righteous happy,
and boasts that God is his father.
17 Let us see if his words are true,
and let us test what will happen at the end of his life;
18 for if the righteous man is God’s child, he will help him,
and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries.
19 Let us test him with insult and torture,
so that we may find out how gentle he is,
and make trial of his forbearance.
20 Let us condemn him to a shameful death,
for, according to what he says, he will be protected.”
21 Thus they reasoned, but they were led astray,
for their wickedness blinded them,
22 and they did not know the secret purposes of God,
nor hoped for the wages of holiness,
nor discerned the prize for blameless souls;
23 for God created us for incorruption,
and made us in the image of his own eternity,
24 but through the devil’s envy death entered the world,
and those who belong to his company experience it.
Compare Jesus’ teaching about behavior over the law (Matthew 6:1-18 with Sirach 35:1-13
The one who keeps the law makes many offerings;
2 one who heeds the commandments makes an offering of well-being.
3 The one who returns a kindness offers choice flour,
4 and one who gives alms sacrifices a thank offering.
5 To keep from wickedness is pleasing to the Lord,
and to forsake unrighteousness is an atonement.
6 Do not appear before the Lord empty-handed,
7 for all that you offer is in fulfillment of the commandment.
8 The offering of the righteous enriches the altar,
and its pleasing odor rises before the Most High.
9 The sacrifice of the righteous is acceptable,
and it will never be forgotten.
10 Be generous when you worship the Lord,
and do not stint the first fruits of your hands.
11 With every gift show a cheerful face,
and dedicate your tithe with gladness.
12 Give to the Most High as he has given to you,
and as generously as you can afford.
13 For the Lord is the one who repays,
and he will repay you sevenfold.
The theme of prayers rising up to the throne room of God, by the hands of the angels
Revelation 8:3-4 – Another angel with a golden censer came and stood at the altar; he was given a great quantity of incense to offer with the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar that is before the throne. 4 And the smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, rose before God from the hand of the angel.
Tobit 12:12-15 – So now when you and Sarah prayed, it was I who brought and read[a] the record of your prayer before the glory of the Lord, and likewise whenever you would bury the dead. 13 And that time when you did not hesitate to get up and leave your dinner to go and bury the dead, 14 I was sent to you to test you. And at the same time God sent me to heal you and Sarah your daughter-in-law. 15 I am Raphael, one of the seven angels who stand ready and enter before the glory of the Lord.”
This particular subject is completely absent from the OT but is featured in a number of NT texts. Almsgiving was an act of righteousness that consisted of giving to the poor. The reason why giving to the poor was such a righteous deed was because there was no reward for the giver. During the exilic period the Jews sought ways to regain their righteous standing. Since they had no temple to make sacrifices in, almsgiving became a form of sacrifice. It should also be mentioned that the exilic prophets, like Isaiah, chastised the Jewish people for not taking care of the poor among them. Thus, almsgiving was also a response to the accusations brought by the prophets.
Almsgiving in the NT
He was a devout man who feared God with all his household; he gave alms generously to the people and prayed constantly to God. One afternoon at about three o’clock he had a vision in which he clearly saw an angel of God coming in and saying to him, “Cornelius.” He stared at him in terror and said, “What is it, Lord?” He answered, “Your prayers and your alms have ascended as a memorial before God.
He said, ‘Cornelius, your prayer has been heard and your alms have been remembered before God.
Now in Joppa there was a disciple whose name was Tabitha, which in Greek is Dorcas.[a] She was devoted to good works and acts of charity.
Now after some years I (Paul) came to bring alms to my nation and to offer sacrifices.
1 John 3:17
How does God’s love abide in anyone who has the world’s goods and sees a brother or sister in need and yet refuses help?
When he saw Peter and John about to go into the temple, he asked them for alms.
Almsgiving in the Apocrypha
And in the time of Enemessar I gave many alms to my brethren, and gave my bread to the hungry,
But she replied upon me, It was given for a gift more than the wages. Howbeit I did not believe her, but bade her render it to the owners: and I was abashed at her. But she replied upon me, Where are thine alms and thy righteous deeds? behold, thou and all thy works are known.
give alms from your possessions, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from anyone who is poor, and the face of God will not be turned away from you.
If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have.
For almsgiving delivers from death and keeps you from going into the Darkness.
Indeed, almsgiving, for all who practice it, is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High.
Give some of your food to the hungry, and some of your clothing to the naked. Give all your surplus as alms, and do not let your eye begrudge your giving of alms.
Prayer is good with fasting and alms and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with unrighteousness. It is better to give alms than to lay up gold:
For almsgiving saves from death and purges away every sin. Those who give alms will enjoy a full life
And he was eight and fifty years old when he lost his sight, which was restored to him after eight years: and he gave alms, and he increased in the fear of the Lord God, and praised him.
For God repaid him to his face for this shameful treatment. Ahikar came out into the light, but Nadab went into the eternal darkness, because he tried to kill Ahikar. Because he gave alms, Ahikar[a] escaped the fatal trap that Nadab had set for him, but Nadab fell into it himself, and was destroyed.
So now, my children, see what almsgiving accomplishes, and what injustice does—it brings death! But now my breath fails me.”
Water will quench a flaming fire; and alms makes an atonement for sins.
Be not fainthearted when you pray, and neglect not to give alms.
No good comes to him that is always occupied in evil, nor to him that does not give alms.
The alms of a man is as a signet with him, and he will keep the good deeds of man as the apple of the eye, and give repentance to his sons and daughters.
Shut up alms in thy storehouses: and it shall deliver thee from all affliction.
His goods shall be established, and the congregation shall declare his alms.
He that requires a good turn offers fine flour; and he that gives alms sacrifices praise.
Brethren and help are against time of trouble: but alms shall deliver more than them both.
Works-Salvation & the Resurrection
Before going to seminary I struggled to understand where the idea came from that the Jews had to “earn” their salvation. I simply could not find this in the OT. In fact, the whole idea of a resurrection and an afterlife seemed to be missing also. On the question of if the OT teaches resurrection of the dead, I can answer no better than what was uttered by Dr. Peter Enns;
No. Not really. Well, sort of. O.K., yes, but it depends on how you look at it. (Peter Enns on the resurrection on the OT)
Where did such ideas come from? The answer all lies in the Apocryphal works, as well as 2 or 3 verses in Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel. All of these verses being very late passages, about the same time that the Apocryphal books were being written. Other works that are in the Pseudepigrapha contain even more theology of the afterlife that most Christians would recognize from the NT.
The notion of personal salvation arose through Jewish thought on Enoch and Elijah, who were so righteous that they Lord took them to be with him. Their “salvation” became the hope for the Jewish people who had yet to see the promises of God’s redemption and salvation fulfilled in their nation. Rather, they were continually being made captives by the surrounding nations. Leaders like Ezra and the priestly class blamed the nations lack of adherence to the law. This only reinforced the theology around the need to be righteous and the hope that salvation would come for them if they could only obey the commands of the Lord.
Soteriology in the Old Testament
And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt
Then he said to me: “Son of man, these bones are the people of Israel. They say, ‘Our bones are dried up and our hope is gone; we are cut off.’ 12 Therefore prophesy and say to them: ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: My people, I am going to open your graves and bring you up from them; I will bring you back to the land of Israel. 13 Then you, my people, will know that I am the Lord, when I open your graves and bring you up from them. 14 I will put my Spirit in you and you will live, and I will settle you in your own land. Then you will know that I the Lord have spoken, and I have done it, declares the Lord.’”
Isaiah 26:19 alluded to a resurrection but it’s not actually talking about a resurrection , like in the end times, but of the nation of Israel. If verse 19 is read without verse 18 it sounds like a Christian style resurrection.
“We (Israel) were pregnant, writhing in pain,
but we gave birth only to wind.
We have not won your victory on earth,
nor have the inhabitants of the world been born.”
“But your dead will live; their bodies will rise.
Those who live in the dust will wake up and shout for joy!
For your dew is like the dew of dawn,
and the earth will give birth to the dead.”
Come, my people, enter your rooms
and shut your doors behind you.
Hide yourselves for a little while
until the fury has passed by.
Any other references to any kind of salvation or resurrection comes from the Apocryphal works and other non-canonical works, like the books of Enoch.
Soteriology in the Apocrypha
2 Esdras 2:23
When you find any who are dead, commit them to the grave and mark it, and I will give you the first place in my resurrection.
2 Maccabees 7:9
And when he was at his last breath, he said, “You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.
2 Maccabees 7:14
When he was near death, he said, “One cannot but choose to die at the hands of mortals and to cherish the hope God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!”
2 Maccabees 12:43-44
He also took up a collection, man by man, to the amount of two thousand drachmas of silver, and sent it to Jerusalem to provide for a sin offering. In doing this he acted very well and honorably, taking account of the resurrection. For if he were not expecting that those who had fallen would rise again, it would have been superfluous and foolish to pray for the dead.
2 Esdras 6:25
It shall be that whoever remains after all that I have foretold to you shall be saved and shall see my salvation and the end of my world.
2 Esdras 7:61
I will not grieve over the great number of those who perish; for it is they who are now like a mist, and are similar to a flame and smoke—they are set on fire and burn hotly, and are extinguished.
2 Esdras 8:39
but I will rejoice over the creation of the righteous, over their pilgrimage also, and their salvation, and their receiving their reward.
But the righteous live forever,
and their reward is with the Lord;
But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,
and no torment will ever touch them.
The listings above are by no means exhaustive yet they clearly demonstrate that the apocrypha is not just edifying but necessary for understanding the theology of the NT. Moreover, some ideas that are central to Christianity are only found in the Apocryphal books.
But should they be considered canonical? I actually believe that most of them should be. I would also ad the book of Enoch which was quoted by multiple NT writers.
It was clear that the theology from these books formed the Jewish theology of the NT. Without the Apocryphal works, the bridge from the OT to the NT is razor thin. Very little of the OT can do a good job of supporting the theology of the NT. The best that can be offered are typographical references and verses taken out of context. Only the very last few passages of the OT begin to speak of the kind of salvation that Christians speak of.