Who Was Melchizedek and What Does He Have To Do With Jesus?

The name “Melchizedek” (מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק) is derived from two Hebrew words: “malki” (מַלְכִּי), meaning “my king,” and “zedek” (צֶדֶק), meaning “righteousness” or “justice.” Therefore, the name Melchizedek can be understood to mean “my king is righteousness” or “king of righteousness.” The name Melchizedek holds significant theological and symbolic importance, representing righteousness, kingship, and priesthood. Its meaning aligns with the biblical portrayal of Melchizedek as a righteous and exalted figure who prefigures Christ’s role as the eternal King and High Priest.

In the Bible, Melchizedek appears in the Book of Genesis (14:18-20) Psalm 110, and the Letter to the Hebrews (Chapters 5-7). He is described as both a king and a priest, and he blesses Abraham after his victory in battle. Melchizedek is mentioned as the “king of Salem” (which is often understood as an ancient name for Jerusalem) and “priest of God Most High.” The author of the Letter to the Hebrews refers to Melchizedek as a type or a foreshadowing of Jesus Christ, emphasizing his dual role as a king and a priest, and highlighting his superior priesthood to that of the Levitical priesthood. His appearance in the book of Hebrews is especially interesting as the author appears to be referencing a number of Melchizedek traditions from apocalyptical texts that were discovered with the Dead Sea Scrolls.

TLDR Melchizedek Video Explanation

Who is Melchizedek and what does he have to do with Jesus?

Biblical References to Melchizedek

In the three biblical appearances of Melchizedek, his profile grows each time. The first reference in Genesis 14 is brief and he is seen blessing Abraham after defeating the kings that took his cousin, Lot, captive. After Abram (later known as Abraham) rescues his nephew Lot from captivity, Melchizedek, who is described as the king of Salem and a priest of God Most High, comes out to meet Abram. Melchizedek blesses Abram and receives a tithe (a tenth) of the spoils of war Abram had acquired.

Genesis 14:18-20:

18 Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine. He was priest of God Most High, 19 and he blessed Abram, saying,

“Blessed be Abram by God Most High,
    Creator of heaven and earth.
20 And praise be to God Most High,
    who delivered your enemies into your hand.”

Then Abram gave him a tenth of everything.

David’s view of Melchizedek, which is found in Psalm 110, is that he is the ideal figure to lead God’s people, as he was both priest and king. He sees his lineage and future heir to the throne to be in the same type is form as Melchizedek. This idea is going to be picked up in the later messianic expectations of the pre-Christian era.

Psalm 110:2-4

The Lord will extend your mighty scepter from Zion, saying,
    “Rule in the midst of your enemies!”
Your troops will be willing
    on your day of battle.
Arrayed in holy splendor,
    your young men will come to you
    like dew from the morning’s womb.

The Lord has sworn
and will not change his mind:
“You are a priest forever,
in the order of Melchizedek.”

The third book to mention Melchizedek the New Testament book of Hebrews. The author of Hebrews extensively discusses Melchizedek’s significance in relation to Jesus Christ. Melchizedek is presented as a type or foreshadowing of Christ, emphasizing his unique and superior priesthood. The author draws parallels between Melchizedek, who was both a king and a priest, and Jesus Christ, presenting Jesus as the ultimate High Priest in the order of Melchizedek. But there is more than meets the eye in the book of Hebrews. This books also taps into some mythical interpretations of who and how Melchizedek came into being.

The Epistle to the Hebrews follows an ancient Dead Sea interpretation (and Enochian interpretation) of the figure of Melchizedek, stating explicitly that the name in Greek translation (ἑρμηνευόμενος) means βασιλεὺς δικαιοσύνης (“king of righteousness”); the same passage interprets Melchizedek’s title of king of Salem as translating to βασιλεὺς εἰρήνης “king of peace”, the context providing a presentation of Melchizedek’s as an eternal priesthood associated with Jesus Christ (ἀφωμοιωμένος δὲ τῷ υἱῷ τοῦ θεοῦ μένει ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸ διηνεκές, “made like unto the Son of God abides a priest continually”).[1]Willard M. Swartley, Covenant of Peace, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2006, p. 255. Gary Staats, A Christological Commentary on Hebrews (2012), p. 71

Hebrews 5:5-10; 6:19-20; 7:1-21:

In the same way, Christ did not take on himself the glory of becoming a high priest. But God said to him,

“You are my Son;
    today I have become your Father.”

And he says in another place,

“You are a priest forever,
in the order of Melchizedek.”

During the days of Jesus’ life on earth, he offered up prayers and petitions with fervent cries and tears to the one who could save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverent submission. Son though he was, he learned obedience from what he suffered and, once made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him 10 and was designated by God to be high priest in the order of Melchizedek.
(Hebrews 5:5-10)

19 We have this hope as an anchor for the soul, firm and secure. It enters the inner sanctuary behind the curtain, 20 where our forerunner, Jesus, has entered on our behalf. He has become a high priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek.
(Hebrews 6:19-20)

This Melchizedek was king of Salem and priest of God Most High. He met Abraham returning from the defeat of the kings and blessed him, and Abraham gave him a tenth of everything. First, the name Melchizedek means “king of righteousness”; then also, “king of Salem” means “king of peace.” Without father or mother, without genealogy, without beginning of days or end of life, resembling the Son of God, he remains a priest forever.

Just think how great he was: Even the patriarch Abraham gave him a tenth of the plunder! Now the law requires the descendants of Levi who become priests to collect a tenth from the people—that is, from their fellow Israelites—even though they also are descended from Abraham. This man, however, did not trace his descent from Levi, yet he collected a tenth from Abraham and blessed him who had the promises. And without doubt the lesser is blessed by the greater. In the one case, the tenth is collected by people who die; but in the other case, by him who is declared to be living. One might even say that Levi, who collects the tenth, paid the tenth through Abraham, 10 because when Melchizedek met Abraham, Levi was still in the body of his ancestor.

11 If perfection could have been attained through the Levitical priesthood—and indeed the law given to the people established that priesthood—why was there still need for another priest to come, one in the order of Melchizedek, not in the order of Aaron? 12 For when the priesthood is changed, the law must be changed also. 13 He of whom these things are said belonged to a different tribe, and no one from that tribe has ever served at the altar. 14 For it is clear that our Lord descended from Judah, and in regard to that tribe Moses said nothing about priests. 15 And what we have said is even more clear if another priest like Melchizedek appears, 16 one who has become a priest not on the basis of a regulation as to his ancestry but on the basis of the power of an indestructible life. 17 For it is declared:

“You are a priest forever,
    in the order of Melchizedek.”

18 The former regulation is set aside because it was weak and useless 19 (for the law made nothing perfect), and a better hope is introduced, by which we draw near to God.

20 And it was not without an oath! Others became priests without any oath, 21 but he became a priest with an oath when God said to him:

“The Lord has sworn
    and will not change his mind:
    ‘You are a priest forever.’”
(Hebrews 7:1-21)


Melchizedek in the Book of Enoch

Melchizedek, the enigmatic figure mentioned in the Bible’s Book of Genesis and the Letter to the Hebrews, does not have a significant presence in apocryphal writings. However, there is one apocryphal text that does mention Melchizedek, known as the “Book of the Secrets of Enoch” or “Second Enoch.”

In the “Book of the Secrets of Enoch,” which is not considered canonical and is attributed to the patriarch Enoch, Melchizedek appears as a semi-divine being. The text describes Melchizedek as having a miracle birth story by a mother (Noah’s sister-in-law) who conceived without having sex with her husband. Melchizedek was born already fully formed, clothed, and talking, as well as having a “badge” of the priesthood on his chest. He survived the flood of Noah by being whisked away from the earth by  the archangel, Michael, and placed temporarily in the garden of Eden.

It’s important to note that the “Book of the Secrets of Enoch” is not accepted as part of the biblical canon by most mainstream Christian denominations and is considered apocryphal or pseudepigraphal. Therefore, its portrayal of Melchizedek is not widely recognized or accepted within traditional Christian theology. The chapters concerning Melchizedek can be read below.

Behold, the wife of Nir, 〈whose〉 name was Sopanim, being sterile and never having at any time given birth to a child by Nir – And Sopanim was in the time of her old age, and in the day of her death. She conceived in her womb, but Nir the priest had not slept with her, nor had he touched her, from the day that the LORD had appointed him to conduct the liturgy in front of the face of the people.

And when Sopanim saw her pregnancy, she was ashamed and embarrassed, and she hid herself during all the days until she gave birth. And not one of the people knew about it. And when 282 days had been completed, and the day of birth had begun to approach, and Nir remembered his wife, and he called her to himself in his house, so that he might converse with her. 〈And〉 Sopanim came to Nir, her husband; and, behold, she was pregnant, and the day appointed for giving birth was drawing near. And Nir saw her, and he became very ashamed. And he said to her,

“What is this that you have done, O wife? And (why) have you disgraced me in front of the face of these people? And now, depart from me, and go where you began the disgrace of your womb, so that I might not defile my hand on account of you, and sin in front of the face of the LORD.”

And Sopanim spoke to Nir, her husband, saying,

“O my lord! Behold, it is the time of my old age, and the day of my death has arrived. I do not understand how my menopause and the barrenness of my womb have been reversed.”

And Nir did not believe his wife, and for the second time he said to her,

“Depart from me, or else I might assault you, and commit a sin in front of the face of the LORD.”

And it came to pass, when Nir had spoken to his wife, Sopanim, that Sopanim fell down at Nir’s feet and died. Nir was extremely distressed, and he said in his heart,

“Could this have happened because of my word, since by word and thought a person can sin in front of the face of the LORD? Now may God have mercy upon me! I know in truth in my heart that my hand was not upon her. And so I say, ‘Glory to you, O LORD, because no one among mankind knows about this deed which the LORD has done.’ ”

And Nir hurried, and he shut the door of his house, and he went to Noe his brother, and he reported to him everything that had happened in connection with his wife. And Noe hurried. He came with Nir his brother; he came into Nir’s house, because of the death of Sopanim, and they discussed between themselves how her womb was at the time of giving birth. And Noe said to Nir,

“Don’t let yourself be sorrowful, Nir, my brother! For the LORD today has covered up our scandal, in that nobody from the people knows this. Now, let us go quickly and let us bury her secretly, and the LORD will cover up the scandal of our shame.”

And they placed Sopanim on the bed, and they wrapped her around with black garments, and shut her in the house, prepared for burial. They dug a grave in secret.

And a child came out from the dead Sopanim. And he sat on the bed at her side. And Noe and Nir came in to bury Sopanim, and they saw the child sitting beside the dead Sopanim, and wiping his clothing. And Noe and Nir were very terrified with a great fear, because the child was fully developed physically, like a three-year-old. And he spoke with his lips, and he blessed the LORD. And Noe and Nir looked at him, and behold, the badge of priesthood was on his chest, and it was glorious in appearance. And Noe and Nir said,

“Behold, God is renewing the priesthood from blood related to us, just as he pleases.”

And Noe and Nir hurried, and they washed the child, and they dressed him in the garments of priesthood, and they gave him the holy bread and he ate it. And they called his name Melkisedek. And Noe and Nir lifted up the body of Sopanim, and divested her of the black garments, and they washed her, and they clothed her in exceptionally bright garments, and they built a shrine for her. Noe and Nir and Melkisedek came, and they buried her publicly. And Noe said to his brother Nir,

“Look after this child in secret until the time, because people will become treacherous in all the earth, and they will begin to turn away from God, and having become totally ignorant, they will put him to death.”

And then Noe went away to his own place.

And great lawlessness began to become abundant over all the earth in the days of Nir. And Nir began to worry excessively, especially about the child, saying,

“How miserable it is for me, eternal LORD, that in my days all lawlessness has begun to become abundant over the earth. And I realize how much nearer out end is, {and} over all the earth, on account of the lawlessness of the people. And now, LORD, what is the vision about this child, and what is his destiny, and what will I do for him? Is it possible that he too will be joined with us in the destruction?”

And the LORD heeded Nir, and appeared to him in a night vision. He said to him,

“Nir, the great lawlessness which has come about on the earth among the multitude I shall not tolerate. And behold, I desire now to send out a great destruction onto the earth, and everything that stands on the earth shall perish. But, concerning the child, don’t be anxious, Nir; because in a short while I shall send my archangel, Michael. And he will take the child, and put him in the paradise of Eden, in the Paradise where Adam was formerly for 7 years, having heaven open all the time up until when he sinned. And this child will not perish along with those who are perishing in this generation, as I have revealed it, so that Melkisedek will be the priest to all holy priests, and I will establish him so that he will be the head of the priests of the future.”

And Nir arose from his sleep and blessed the LORD who had appeared to him, saying,

“Blessed be the LORD, the God of my fathers,

who has told me how he has made a great priest in my day, in the womb of Sopanim, my wife. Because I had no child in this tribe who might become the great priest, but this is my son and your servant, and you are the great God.

Therefore honor him together with your servants and great priests, with Sit, and Enos, and Rusi, and Amilam, and Prasidam, and Maleleil, and Serokh, and Arusan, and Aleem, and Enoch, and Methusalam, and me, your servant Nir.

And behold, Melkisedek will be the head of the 13 priests who existed before. And afterward, in the last generation, there will be another Melkisedek, the first of 12 priests. And the last will be the head of all, a great archpriest, the Word and Power of God, who will perform miracles, greater and more glorious than all the previous ones. He, Melkisedek, will be priest and king in the place Akhuzan, that is to say, in the center of the earth, where Adam was created, and there will be his final grave. And in connection with that archpriest it is written how he also will be buried there, where the center of the earth is, just as Adam also buried his own son there – Abel, whom his brother Cain murdered; for he lay for 3 years unburied, until he saw a bird called Jackdaw, how it buried his own young.

I know that great confusion has come and in confusion this generation will come to an end; and everyone will perish, except that Noe, my brother, will be preserved. And afterward there will be a planting from his tribe, and there will be other people, and there will be another Melkisedek, the head of priests reigning over the people, and performing the liturgy for the LORD.”


And when the child had been 40 days in Nir’s tent, the LORD said to Michael,

“Go down onto the earth to Nir the priest, and take my child Melkisedek, who is with him, and place him in the paradise of Edem for preservation. For the time is approaching, and I will pour out all the water onto the earth, and everything that is on the earth will perish.”

Michael hurried, and he came down when it was night, and Nir was sleeping on his bed. And Michael appeared to him, and said to him,

“Thus says the LORD: ‘Nir! Send the child to me whom I entrusted to you.’ ”

And Nir did not realize who was speaking to him, and his heart was confused. And he said,

“When the people find out about the child, then they will seize him and kill him, because the heart of these people is deceitful in front of the face of the LORD.”

Nir said to the one who was speaking,

“The child is not with me, and I don’t know who you are.”

And he who was speaking to me answered,

“Don’t be frightened, Nir! I am the LORD’s archangel. The LORD has sent me, and behold, I shall take your child today. I will go with him and I will place him in the paradise of Eden, and there he will be forever. And when the twelfth generation shall come into being, and there will be one thousand and seventy years, and there will be born in that generation a righteous man. And the LORD will tell him that he should to out to that mountain where stands the ark of Noe, your brother. And he will find there another Melkisedek, who has been living there for 7 years, hiding himself from the people who sacrifice to idols, so that they might not kill him. He will bring him out, and he will be the first priest and king in the city Salim in the style of this Melkisedek, the originator of the priests. The years will be completed up to that time – 3 thousand and 4 hundred and 32 – from the beginning and the creation of Adam. And from that Melkisedek the priests will be 12 in number until the great Igumen, that is to say, Leader, will bring out everything visible and invisible.”

And Nir understood the first dream and believed it. And having answered Michael he said,

“Blessed be the LORD who has glorified you today for me! And now, bless your servant Nir! For we are coming close to departure from this world. And take the child, and do to him just as the LORD said to you.”

And Michael took the child on the same night on which he had come down; and he took him on his wings, and he placed him in the paradise of Eden. And Nir got up in the morning. He went into his tent and he did not find the child. And there was instead of joy very great grief, because he had no other son except this one. Thus Nir ended his life. And after him there was no priest among the people. And from that time great confusion arose on the earth.


And the LORD called Noe onto the mount Ararat, between Assyria and Armenia, in the land of Arabia, beside the ocean. And he said to him,

“Make there an ark with 300 lakets in length and in width 50 lakets and in height 30. And two stories in the middle, and its doors of one laket. And of their lakets 300, but of ours also 15 thousand; and so of theirs 50, but of ours 2000 and 500, and so of theirs 30, but of ours 900, and of theirs one laket, but of ours 50.”

In agreement with this numeral the Jews keep their measurements of Noe’s ark, just as the LORD said to him, and they carry out all their measurements in the same way, and all their regulations, even up to the present.

The LORD God opened the doors of heaven. Rain came onto the earth for 150 days, and all flesh died. And Noe was in the year 500. He fathered 3 sons: Sim, Kham, Afet. After 100 years, after the birth of his three sons, he went into the ark in the month, according to the Hebrews, Iuars, according to the Egyptians, Famenoth, on the 18th day. And the ark floated for 40 days. And in all they were in the ark for 120 days. And he went into the ark, a son of 600 years, and in the six hundred first year of his life he went out from the ark in the month Farmout according to the Egyptians, but according to the Hebrews Nisan, on the 28th day. After the Flood he lived 350 years, and he died. He lived in all 950 years, according to the LORD our God.

(2 Enoch [Longer recension, ms. J] translated by F. Andersen)[2]https://www.marquette.edu/maqom/slavonicenoch.html


Melchizedek in the Dead Sea Scrolls

The Dead Sea Scrolls contain several references to Melchizedek, most notably in the “Scroll of the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness” (also known as the “War Scroll”) and in a fragmentary text called “The Melchizedek Scroll” or “11QMelch” (11Q13).

War Scroll

In the “War Scroll,” Melchizedek is mentioned as a central figure associated with the eschatological battle between the “Sons of Light” and the “Sons of Darkness.” He is described as a priestly figure who leads the forces of righteousness against the forces of evil. The scroll portrays Melchizedek as an exalted and powerful figure who delivers God’s judgment and triumphs over the enemies of God.

11Q13 (11QMelch)

The “Melchizedek Scroll” (11QMelch) is a fragmentary text that provides additional details about Melchizedek. Unfortunately, much of the text is missing, leaving many gaps and uncertainties. However, the preserved sections highlight Melchizedek’s role as a priestly figure and describe his exalted status. The text associates Melchizedek with divine attributes and titles, presenting him as a figure of immense authority and importance. In this document, Melchizedek is taking on the role of Archangel Michael in the final battle. Another amalgamation of the 2 figures appear in 2QMel. A fragmentary reading of 11Q13 can be found below.

1 […] … […]

2 […] And as for what he said: Lev 25:13 In [this] year of jubilee, [you shall return, each one, to his respective property, concerning it he said: Deut 15:2 « Th]is is

3 [the manner of the release:] every creditor shall release what he lent [to his neighbour. He shall not coerce his neighbour or his brother, for it has been proclaimed] a release

4 for G[od ». Its interpretation] for the last days refers to the captives, who […] and whose

5 teachers have been hidden and kept secret, and from the inheritance of Melchizedek, fo[r …] … and they are the inherita[nce of Melchize]dek, who

6 will make them return. And liberty will be proclaimed for them, to free them from [the debt of] all their iniquities. And this [wil]l [happen]

7 in the first week of the jubilee which follows the ni[ne] jubilees. And the d[ay of aton]ement is the e[nd of] the tenth [ju]bilee

8 in which atonement shall be made for all the sons of [light and] for the men [of] the lot of Mel[chi]zedek. […] … over [the]m … […] accor[ding to] a[ll] their [wor]ks, for

9 it is the time for the year of grace of Melchizedek, and of [his] arm[ies, the nat]ion of the holy ones of God, of the rule of judgment, as is written

10 about him in the songs of David, who said: Ps 82:1 Elohim will [st]and in the assem[bly of God,] in the midst of the gods he judges. And about him he sai[d: Ps 7:8-9 And] above [it,]

11 to the heights, return: God will judge the peoples. As for what he sa[id: Ps 82:2 How long will you] judge unjustly and show partia[lity] to the wicked? [Se]lah.

12 Its interpretation concerns Belial and the spirits of his lot, wh[o …] turn[ing aside] from the commandments of God to [commit evil.]

13 But, Melchizedek will carry out the vengeance of Go[d’s] judgments, [and on that day he will fr]e[e them from the hand of] Belial and from the hand of all the sp[irits of his lot.]

14 To his aid (shall come) all « the gods of [justice »; and h]e is the one w[ho …] all the sons of God, and … […]

15 This […] is the day of [peace about whi]ch he said [… through Isa]iah the prophet, who said: [Isa 52:7 How] beautiful

16 upon the mountains are the feet [of] the messen[ger who] announces peace, the mess[enger of good who announces salvati]on, [sa]ying to Zion: your God [reigns.]

17 Its interpretation: The mountains [are] the prophet[s …] … […] for all … […]

18 And the messenger i[s] the anointed of the spir[it] as Dan[iel] said [about him: Dan 9:25 « Until an anointed, a prince, it is seven weeks. » And the messenger of]

19 good who announ[ces salvation] is the one about whom it is written that […]

20 To comfo[rt] the [afflicted, its interpretation:] to instruct them in all the ages of the wo[rld …]

21 in truth … […] … […]

22 […] has turned away from Belial and will re[turn …] … […]

23 […] in the judgment[s of] God, as is written about him: [Isa 52:7 Saying to Zi]on: your God rules. [Zi]on i[s]

24 [the congregation of all the sons of justice, those] who establish the covenant, those who avoid walking [on the pa]th of the people. And your God is

25 [… Melchizedek, who will fr]e[e them from the ha]nd of Belial. And as for what he said: Lev 25:9 You shall blow the hor[n in] all the [l]and of[3]Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (eds.García Martinez and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, 1208)

Both the “War Scroll” and the “Melchizedek Scroll” found among the Dead Sea Scrolls present Melchizedek as a significant and exalted figure, associated with priestly functions and playing a prominent role in the eschatological battles and judgments. These depictions in the Dead Sea Scrolls contribute to our understanding of the way Melchizedek was viewed in some Jewish circles during the Second Temple period.

The Qumran Scrolls, also indicate that Melchizedek was used as a name of the Archangel Michael, interpreted as a heavenly priest; Michael as Melchi-zedek contrast with Belial, who is given the name of Melchi-resha “king of wickedness”.[4]Pearson, Birger A. (2003). “Melchizedek in Early Judaism, Christianity and Gnosticism”. In Stone, Michael E.; Bergren, Theodore A. (eds.). Biblical Figures Outside the Bible. p. 181. [5]Gareth Lee Cockerill, The Epistle to the Hebrews, vol. 29 of The New International Commentary on the New Testament Author, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2012, 298f.

Melchizedek in the Gnostic Nag Hammadi Library

There are texts within the gnostic Christian corpus which also depict Melchizedek as a divine end-times warrior. In 1945 a cache of texts were recovered from Upper Egypt. Within the library were many Gnostic Christian texts. One such text depicts Jesus as Melchizedek in the final battle of good and evil. However, the narrative is quite fragmentary.

Translated by Søren Giversen and Birger A. Pearson

Jesus Christ, the Son of God […] from …
… (2 lines unrecoverable)
… the aeons, that I might tell all of the aeons, and, in (the case of) each one of the aeons, that I might tell the nature of the aeon, what it is, and that I might put on friendship and goodness as a garment, O brother, […] and …
… (7 lines unrecoverable)
… their end […]. And he will reveal to them the truth […] in …
… (3 lines unrecoverable)
… proverb(s) …
… (lines 26-eop [=end of page], and first 2 lines of next page, unrecoverable)
… at first in parables and riddles […] proclaim them. Death will tremble and be angry, not only he himself, but also his fellow world-ruling archons, and the principalities and the authorities, the female gods and the male gods, together with the archangels. And …
… (4 lines unrecoverable)
… all of them, […] the world-rulers […], all of them, and all the […], and all the […].

They will say […] concerning him, and concerning […] and …
… (2 lines unrecoverable)
… they will […] hidden mysteries …
… (lines 27-eop, and first 2 lines of next page, unrecoverable)
… out of […] the All. They will […] this. The lawyers will bury him quickly. They will call him ‘impious man’, ‘lawless’, ‘impure’. And on the third day, he will rise from the dead …
… (lines 12-eop, and first 3 lines of next page, unrecoverable)
… holy disciples. And the Savior will reveal to them the world that gives life to the All.

But those in the heavens spoke many words, together with those on the earth, and those under the earth. …
… (lines 11-eop unrecoverable)

… which will happen in his name. Furthermore, they will say of him that he is unbegotten, though he has been begotten, (that) he does not eat, even though he eats, (that) he does not drink, even though he drinks, (that) he is uncircumcised, though he has been circumcised, (that) he is unfleshly, though he has come in the flesh, (that) he did not come to suffering, <though> he came to suffering, (that) he did not rise from the dead, <though> he arose from the dead.

But all the tribes and all the peoples will speak the truth who are receiving from you yourself, O Melchizedek, Holy One, High-Priest, the perfect hope and the gifts of life. I am Gamaliel, who was sent to […] the congregation of the children of Seth, who are above thousands of thousands, and myriads of myriads, of the aeons […] essence of the aeons, aba[…] aiai ababa. O divine […] of the […] nature […]! O Mother of the aeons, Barbelo! O first-born of the aeons, splendid Doxomedon Dom[…]! O glorious one, Jesus Christ! O chief commanders of the luminaries, you powers Armozel, Oroiael, Daveithe, Eleleth, and you man-of-light, immortal aeon Pigera-Adamas, and you good god of the beneficent worlds, Mirocheirothetou, through Jesus Christ, the Son of God! This is the one whom I proclaim, inasmuch as there has visited the One who truly exists, among those who exist […] do(es) not exist, Abel Baruch – that you (sg.) might be given the knowledge of the truth […], that he is from the race of the High-priest, which is above thousands of thousands, and myriads of myriads, of the aeons. The adverse spirits are ignorant of him, and (of) their (own) destruction. Not only (that, but) I have come to reveal to you the truth, which is within the brethren. He included himself in the living offering, together with your offspring. He offered them up as an offering to the All. For it is not cattle that you will offer up for sin(s) of unbelief, and for the ignorances, and (for) all the wicked deeds which they will do […]. And they do not reach the Father of the All […] the faith …
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For the waters which are above […] that receive baptism […]. But receive that baptism which is with the water which […], while he is coming …
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… baptism as they …
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… pray for the offspring of the archons and all the angels, together with the seed <which> flowed forth from the Father of the All […] the entire […] from […] there were engendered the gods and the angels, and the men […] out of the seed, all of the natures, those in the heavens and those upon the earth and those under the earth …
… (14 lines unrecoverable)
… nature of the females […], among those that are in the […]. They were bound with […] But this is not (the) true Adam nor (the) true Eve.

For when they ate of the tree of knowledge, they trampled the Cherubim and the Seraphim with the flaming sword. They […], which was Adam’s, […] the world-rulers, and […] them out […] after they had brought forth […] offspring of the archons and their worldly things, these belonging to …
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… light […]. And the females and the males, those who exist with […] hidden from every nature, and they will renounce the archons […] who receive from him the […]. For they are worthy of […] immortal, and great […], and great […], and great […] sons of men […] disciples […] image, and […] from the light […] which is holy. For […] from the beginning […] a seed …
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But I will be silent […], for we are the brethren who came down from the living […]. They will […] upon the …
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… of Adam, […], Abel, Enoch, Noah, […] you, Melchizedek, the Priest of God Most High, […] those who […] women …
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… these two who have been chosen will at no time nor in any place will they be convicted, whenever they have been begotten, by their enemies, by their friends, nor by strangers, nor their (own) kin, (nor) by the impious, nor the pious. All of the adverse natures will […] them, whether those that are manifest, or those that are not manifest, together with those that dwell in the heavens, and those that are upon the earth, and those that are under the earth. They will make war […] every one. For […], whether in the …
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… many …
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And these in the […] every one will […]. These will […] with every blow […] weaknesses. These will be confined in other forms, and will be punished. These the Savior will take them away, and they will overcome everything, not with their mouths and words, but by means of the […], which will be done for them. He will destroy Death.

These things which I was commanded to reveal, these things reveal as I (have done). But that which is hidden, do not reveal to anyone, unless it is revealed to you (to do so).”

And immediately, I arose, I, Melchizedek, and I began to […] God […] that I should rejoice …
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… while he is acting […] living […] I said, “I …
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… and I will not cease, from now on, forever, O Father of the All, because you have had pity on men, and you have sent the angel of light […] from your aeons […] to reveal […]. When he came, he caused me to be raised up from ignorance, and (from) the fructification of death to life. For I have a name: I am Melchizedek, the Priest of God Most High; I know that it is I who am truly the image of the true High-Priest of God Most High, and […] the world. For it is not a small thing that God […] with […] while he […]. And […] the angels that dwell upon the earth
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… is the sacrifice of […], whom Death deceived. When he died, he bound them with the natures which are leading them astray. Yet he offered up offerings […] cattle, saying, “I gave them to Death, and the angels, and the […] demons […] living offering […]. I have offered up myself to you as an offering, together with those that are mine, to you yourself, (O) Father of the All, and those whom you love, who have come forth from you who are holy (and) living. And <according to> the perfect laws, I shall pronounce my name as I receive baptism now (and) forever, (as a name) among the living (and) holy names, and (now) in the waters. Amen.”

Holy are you, Holy are you, Holy are you, O Father of the All, who truly exists, […] do(es) not exist, Abel Baruch […], for ever and ever, Amen.

Holy are you, Holy are you, Holy are you, Mother of the aeons, Barbelo, for ever and ever, Amen.

Holy are you, Holy are you, Holy are you, First-born of the aeons, Doxomedon […], for ever and ever, Amen.

Holy are you, Holy are you, Holy are you, …
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… for ever and ever, Amen.

Holy are you, Holy are you, Holy are you, …
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… first aeon, Harmozel, for ever and ever, Amen.

Holy are you, Holy are you, Holy are you, commander, luminary of the aeons, Oriael, for ever and ever, Amen.

Holy are you, Holy are you, Holy are you, commander of the aeons, man-of-light, Daveithe, for ever and ever. Amen.

Holy are you, Holy are you, Holy are you, commander-in-chief, Eleleth …
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… the aeons …
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… for ever and ever, Amen.

Holy are you, Holy are you, Holy are you, good god of the beneficent words, … Mirocheirothetou, for ever and ever, Amen.

Holy are you, Holy are you, Holy are you, Commander-in-chief of the All, Jesus Christ, for ever and ever, Amen.

… (1 line unrecoverable)
… blessed […] confession. And […] confess him […] now […], then it becomes […] fear and […], fear and […] disturb […] surrounding them […], in the place which has a great darkness in it, and many […] appear […] there […] appear …
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And […] they were clothed with […] all, and …
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… disturbances. They gave […] their words […], and they said to me, “[…], Melchizedek, Priest of God Most High,” […] they spoke as though […] their mouths […] in the All …
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… lead astray …
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… with his […] worship, and […] faith, and […] his prayers, and …
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… those that are his […] first …
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… They did not care that the priesthood which you perform, which is from …
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… in the counsels of […] Satan […], the sacrifice […] his doctrines …
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… of this aeon …
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… which exist(s) in […], lead(s) astray …
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… and some …
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… he gave them to …
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… and thirteen …
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… throw him […], in order that you might …
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… for immediately, […], by means of […] on the ground. The …
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(pp.23-24 of the codex are almost completely missing)

… men. And […] you (pl.) struck me, […] you threw me, […] corpse. And you crucified me from the third hour of the Sabbath-eve until the ninth hour. And after these things, I arose from the dead, […] came out of […] into me, […] my eyes saw […], they did not find anyone …
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… greeted me […]. They said to me, “Be strong, O Melchizedek, great High-priest of God Most High, for the archons, who are your enemies, made war; (but) you have prevailed over them, and they did not prevail over you, and you endured, and you destroyed your enemies. […] of their […] will rest in any […] which is living (and) holy […] those that exalted themselves against him in […] flesh …
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“… with offerings, working on that which is good, fasting with fasts. These revelations, do not reveal to anyone in the flesh, since they are incorporeal, unless it is revealed to you (to do so).”

When the brethren who belong to the generations of life had said these things, they were taken up to (the regions) above all the heavens. Amen.


This translation was made by Søren Giversen and Birger A. Pearson, excerpted from The Nag Hammadi Library in English edited by James M. Robinson, and transcribed for online publication originally at the Gnostic Society Library (gnosis.org).


This connection of Michael and Melchizedek as eternal priest kings gave rise to the Christian mythology surrounding his appearance in history. It is this mythology that we find in the book of Hebrews, being a representation of the Christ. Melchizedek is essentially an incarnation of the eternal priest-king which explains why he seemingly came from nowhere and then disappeared from history as mysteriously as he came into it. Moreover, Melchizedek being crossed over with the archangel, Michael might also provide another layer of significance as the final savior finally bringing an end to the rule of wickedness in the final battle. Like the human incarnation of Melchizedek from Genesis, Jesus is believed to be another incarnation of this eternal priest-king.



1 Willard M. Swartley, Covenant of Peace, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2006, p. 255. Gary Staats, A Christological Commentary on Hebrews (2012), p. 71
2 https://www.marquette.edu/maqom/slavonicenoch.html
3 Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (eds.García Martinez and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, 1208
4 Pearson, Birger A. (2003). “Melchizedek in Early Judaism, Christianity and Gnosticism”. In Stone, Michael E.; Bergren, Theodore A. (eds.). Biblical Figures Outside the Bible. p. 181.
5 Gareth Lee Cockerill, The Epistle to the Hebrews, vol. 29 of The New International Commentary on the New Testament Author, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2012, 298f.

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